Sunday, 30 June 2013

The man of double deed - Anon

Head full of cold and  at moment, the complexities of life reinforced, in dreams and thought we can at least  find freedom, converge our different arrangements. realign our illusions. 

                         The Man of Double Deed, 1989 (etching )
                                                          Paulo Rego b.1935 

                                                  Location:- Leeds Art Museum & Galleries
                                                          (Leeds Art Gallery)
                                                    There was a Man of Double Deed
                                                    Who sowed his Garden full of Seed,
                                                    And when the Seed began to grow
                                                    'Twas like a Garden full of Snow,
                                                    And when the Snow began to melt
                                                    'Twas like a Show without a Welt,
                                                    And when the Shoe began to sail
                                                    'Twas like a Bird without a Tail,
                                                    And when the Bird began to fly
                                                    'Twas like an Eagle in the Sky,
                                                    And when the Sky began to lower
                                                    'Twas like a Liar at my Door,
                                                    When my Door began to crack
                                                    'Twas like a Stick across my Back,
                                                    And when my Back began to smart
                                                    ' Twas like an Arrow in my Heart,
                                                    And when my Back began to bleed
                                                    I was like the Man of Double Deed
                                                    Who sowed his Garden full of Seed.
                                                                                        Seething, Norfolk       

Friday, 28 June 2013

Glastonbury Foxhunting - Unworthy Farm

Short clips of Blackmore & Sparkford Vale foxhunt,  riding through the 'greenfields' of Glastonbury festival site. They chased a fox over the A361 SW of Pilton from the meet at Sticklinch, then another one NW from West Pennard. They then hunted all over Worthy Farm, site of the Glastonbury festival - around the stone circle and pyramid stage.
Michael Eavis makes great claims about how green and peaceful he is - maybe he should think about the fear and violence involved in fox and hare hunting and the hunt followers he employs as security on the gates at the festival.
Oh and he supports the Badger Cull too, and in these difficult and dangerous time, the tickets at an extortionate £205 a pop, is  what some folk live on for four weeks,  it  certainly does not sound like a peoples' festival to me. Corporate logos plastered all over the site, plus the Mumford and bloody sons !!! I fail to see a vision of Avalon or Shangrila .
On a personal note, have not been since the mid- nineties when  you  could (unofficially) get in free. Think i'ts goin to rain, some things never change.

Wednesday, 26 June 2013

Leonard Peltier Day

Today has been proclaimed as a day of memory and solidarity for Mr Leonard Peltier and hereafter every day on the 26th of June.
Throughout the world this man 'dubbed' the Nelson Mandela of North America is considered a political prisoner. With the support of AIM (The American Indian Movement), Amnesty International, global religious and political leaders, as well as over 20 million individuals, Peltier continues to fight not only for personal freedom but for justice for all Native Americans.
Leonard Peltier was convicted  for the deaths of two FBI agents who died on this day in 1975 in a shoot out at the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.
Mr Peltier was an AIM leader who had been asked by the traditional people at Pine Ridge, South Dakota, to come and help protect these people from violenceand to protect the peoples land  from mining operators,for uranium. In the two years prior  to the confrontation more than 60 indians at the Pine Ridge Reservation had been killed, without anyone being brought to justice for their crimes.
The confrontation in which the two FBI agents were killed after the agents had entered the reservation  with an arrest warrant. A fire fight  ensured. Evidence was presented at trial to show that the agents had recieved multiple shots and were quickly disabled beforebeing shot dead at point blank range. Two other AIM  leaders were initially charged with the agents' murders and were tried seperately, no evidence at the time was presented to link them to the killings. They were subsequently acqitted after evidence emerged about the atmosphere and intimidation on the reservation, with the conclusion that they might  have been acting in self-defence.
Following their acquittal, the FBI renewed its efforts to pursue Leonard Peltier, they needed a scapegoat  and he was arrested on February 6th 1976.

He was never given a fair trial, faced with an all white jury,federal autorities quashed or destroyed thousands of pages of evidence which would have led to his freedom.The balluistic evidence was deeply flawed, and no real links  to identify  Mr Peltier with the murder.
His  most recent petition for release on parole was denied in 2009, and I understand that  he is not eligible for consideration for parole again until 2024.
Now  aged 68 in poor health he has been incarcenated for 37 years, in poor health, suffering from diabetes, a heart condition and high blood pressure. Over the years he has become a model prisoner, still proclaiming his innocence,  his committment to his fellow  Native American rights undimmed, he spends his time concentrating on art and writing.
It is time

Some petitions

Official Leonard Peltier website

Immortal Technique - Internally Bleeding
The Beat goes on a tribute to Leonard Peltier

Tuesday, 25 June 2013

The Secret Police and Stephen Lawrence

The barrister who represented the family of the murdered black teenager Stephen Lawrebce says that  they are shocked by the revelation that a police officer may have been ordered to infiltrate the Stephen Lawrence campaign in 1993.
Absolutely dreadful allegations have emerged through the Guardian newspaper and the documentary programme 'Dispatches' on Channel 4, about the role of Briatains secret police, which exposed an orchestrated calculated attempt to discredit the campaign and smear the Lawrence family and associates.
An undercover police officer called Peter Fleming spied on the family , in a " hunt for disinformation" that might undermine those calling for an inquiry into Scotland Yard's botched operation.

Undercover officer , how I spied on Stephen Lawrence family

 It's difficult to find the words to convey the complete defamation of justice that such news represents. The ability for those, who pretend to protect and serve us, to fabricate and decieve in order to justify their own structural inadequacy is so shocking that is sometimes leaves us numb
These were not actions conducted collectively by police officers at the end of their tether. Again and again it has been proved that they have used planned operations to attack people working for social justice, with further allegations of infiltration of other groups working for change.
When people ask us why we say 'no justice no peace', why we don't trust police and why we have little faith in their reformation, these are the reasons why. For years now, our police forces have been deploying tactics like these that I believe, have no part in a democratic society, the Police being used as strategic arms of the state machine.
Stephen's mother was said to be 'aghast' about these allegations, 'coming back to haunt' the family after all this time. But has managed to bravely reatain her dignity and composure.

These allegations must be investigated immediately, this attempt to smear a grieving family is unforgiveable and beyond contempt.


Monday, 24 June 2013

Arthur Ponsoby (Lord Ponsoby of Shulbrade , 16/2/1871- 23/3/18) - Live in the Present

                           Arthur Ponsonby, writer and social activist

' It cannot be too strongly emphasised that it is the journey that really matters, not the destination. There is higher remuneration and richness of experience to be gained for those who notice and explore the beauties and interests of the roadside in every stage of a journey than for those who blindly pass them by unnoticed in their eagerness to reach the expected though uncertain pleasures of some distant popular centre of attraction. The summit of the mountain may be dissapointing; it is the arduous climb to reach it which gives real satisfaction. . .
Now  is the greatest of moments, the most real thing of which we can be aware, and the whole colour of your life depends on this important now. To seize it as an opportunity means bracing oneself up for action, decision, bite , endeavour. Action is the finest narcotic for grief and bereavement; action dispels lassitude, and action resolves into their true proportions the petty irritations which disturb the even tenor of all our lives.'

From ' Life Here and Now '

I would add that at this moment governments of the world seem to go in the opposite direction of all that we know to be true, as people wake up and protest against their corruption, as a species we have outgrown governmental control.Follow your desires, fulfill your needs, escape from pain.

Saturday, 22 June 2013

Friday, 21 June 2013


The chambers of the sun
break through the mist
light releases, hugs the earth
makes space within our hearts
as we follow chords of immediacy
sing out abundant songs
pause and remember
as rippling currents point the way
feeding thirsty roots
casting shadows of peace
against the darkness of seasons sap
the roads lead on and on
as nature continues to carry us
releasing seeds, leaves, and hope
making things stronger 
feeding love that grows
as we struggle and renew
all things are possible.

Happy Summer Solstice,

Thursday, 20 June 2013

World Refugee Day

On this day
Don't forget the 6 million Palestinian Refugees around the world.
Some 31% of Palestinian refugees in the West Bank and Gaza live below the poverty line, according to statistics issued by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics.
This is reinforced by a young population of which 41% are under the age of 15, compared with 39.7% of the non-refugee population in the West Bank and Gaza strip.
Meanwhile 27.9% of over 15 year olds are unemplyed, compared with 19.8% of non-refugees.
However, the illiteracy rate among Palestinian refugees is lower than non-refugees, with a rate of 3.7% of those aged 15 and above, compared to 4.3% of non-refugees.
While 86% of refugees owned their own housing units, only 15.9% owned private cars. 10% less than non-refugees.
These statistics were released to mark International Refugee Day and show that as of 1 January 2013, there were 5.3 million UNRWA registered Palestinian refugees.
Of the total 40% are in Jordan, 24% in Gaza strip. 17% in the West Bank, 10% in Syria and 9% in Lebanon.
According to UNRWA'S website, when the Agency satrted working in 1990, it was responding to the needs of about 750,000 Palestine refugees.

Tuesday, 18 June 2013

A Slow Burning Fuse

                                                   Sao Paulo, Brazil, 13/6/13

                                                   Turkey, now.

Voices tail us,
roaring on the wind,
in a rainbow breath,
on the squares of continents,
people united, under flags of resistance,
brandishing patents of indignation,
where  crumbs become waves,
and the air fills with fire.
Poisoned by legislators, and politicians tongue,
calls for justice, weave comrades together,
and with clenched fists, the people sing,
tides, follow no order, but it's forces soar,
as the barriers and fences come tumbling down,
the fury of the masses  cannot be contained,
a slow burning fuse, fuelling  pulsations,
when, there is nothing left to lose.

Nice Page,here inspirationfor above poem!/TheSlowBurningFuse?fref=ts

Monday, 17 June 2013

The Voices Of Austerity The Cold Hard Truth (With Music)

Everything  you need to know about what's going on with the powers that be in the U.K.
Listen, understand it and share it....
Good people of the world.

Click on picture to enlarge

Sunday, 16 June 2013

The Termites may win - Herbert Noyes (b ? d1917)

Herbert Noyes was an Anglican priest in the last quarter of the 19th Century and first two decades of the 20th Century.

MILLIONS of years ago it was a point of issue whether Man or the Termite should possess the earth. Both being, in their natural state, the most helpless, unprotected, and weaponless of all creatures that walk - or crawl - the victory was in doubt, until, some aeons later, the ant came to the recue to the man and drove the Termite underground.
In entomology the Termite belongs to the order Isoptera, but is commonly known as the "white ant," because, as some humorist has observed, it is neither white nor an ant.
The life of the Termite is beyond all human comprrehension. Neither hereditary or evolution can adequately explain the miracles wrought by it. No scientist has ever put forward any reasonable explanation of the Power which guides their destiny - though no man can say what the last may be - is to me beyond doubt.
In a few thousand years, when the names and theories of our scientific teachers of today have faded from human memory, the Termite, secure in the fact that its total destruction is an economic impossibility, will be relentlessly pursuing his endless warfare against man and all his works. Empires and kingdoms, civilisations and creeds will dissapear, leaving no more vestiges behind than those which have preceded our own vaunted progress, but the inscrutably directed civilisation of the Termite, disdaining all mechanical aids, will remain to mock all our explanations.

Reprinted from Wit & Wisdom:
A medley of life and laughter,
London Burke Publishing Company Limited

Friday, 14 June 2013

Emmeline Pankhust (15/7/1858 - 14/6/1928) -' There are women lying at death's door...' and the uncomfortable legacy

Picture above, Emmaline Pankhurst

(Repost from yesterday, forgotten spectacles)

On the anniversary of the death of one of the leaders of Britain's Suffragette movement and the fourth anniversary of this blog, thought I would reprint this speech she delivered to an American audience on the 15th November 1913.
Whilst recognising the Suffragettes heroic struggle for equal rights, inspiring many to follow in acts of civil disobedience, with Emmeline herself being imprisoned many times, it does leave me with a few questions which I will try to raise at the end of this speech.

'...I have seen men smile when they heard the words 'hunger strike' and yet I think there are very few men today who would be prepared to adopt a 'hunger strike' for any cause. It is only people who feel an intolerable sense of oppression who would adopt a means of that kind. It means you refuse food until you are at death's door, and then the authorities have to choose between letting you die, and letting you go; and then they let the women go. No, that went on so long that the government felt that they were unable to cope. It was then that, to the shame of the British government, that they set an example to authorities all over the world of feeding sane, resisting human beings by force. There may be doctors in this meeting: if so, they know it it is one thing to feed by force an insane person; but it is quite another thing to feed a sane, resisting human being who resists with every nerve and every fibre of her body the indignity and the outrage of forcible feeding. Now, that was done in England, and the government thought they had crushed us. But they found that it did not quell the agitation, that more and more women came in and even passed that terrible ordeal, and they were obliged to let them go.
   Then came the legislation - the "Cat and Mouse Act". The Home Secretary said: "Give me the power to let these women go when they are at death's door, and leave them at liberty under licence until they have recovered their health again and then bring them back." It was passed to repress the agitation, to make the women yield- because that is what it has really come to, ladies and gentlemen. It has come to a battle between the women and the government  as to who shall yield first, whether they will yield and give us the vote, or whether we will give up our agitation.
  Well they little know what women are. Women are very slow to rouse, but once they are aroused, once they are determined, nothing on earth and nothing in heaven will make women give way; it is impossible. And so this 'Cat and Mouse Act' which is being used against women today has failed. There are women lying at death's door, recovering enough strength to undergow operations, who have not given in and wont give in, and who will be prepared, as soon as they get up from their sick beds to go on as before. There are women who are being carried from their sick beds stricken on stretchers into meetings. They are too weak to speak, but they go amongst their fellow workers just to show that their spirits are unquenched, and that their spirit is alive, and they mean to go on as long as life lasts. Now, I want to say to you who think women cannot succeed, we have bought the government of England to this position, that it has to face this alternative: either women are to be killed or women are to have the vote. I ask American men in this meeting, what would you say if in your state you were faced with the alternative, that you must either kill them or give them their citizenship? Well, there is only one answer to that alternative, there is only one way out - you must give those women the vote ... I come to ask you to help win this fight.'

Powerful stuff indeed, and it was not untill 1928 that women were granted full equal rights of voting as men in Britain. Whilst supporting the concepts of equality and freedom, I believe the Suffragette movement unfortunately helped perpetuate the myth that making an 'X' on a pice of paper can affect real change. It leaves many people with the idea that they can vote and assuage themselve of guilt for not participating in any further action, with the conviction that they have done all that they need to do.
It is noticeable that Pankhurst, persuaded her Women's Social and Political Union to halt all militant suffrage activities dring the First World War, being among the first to ssurrender their principles to the altar of war and patriotism.It is also noticeable that Emmeline Pankhurst later became a member of the Conservative Party. It is also worth noting that the ability of women to elect and be elected culminated, in Britain with the rise to power of Margaret Thatcher, whose policies of repression, which had nothing I guess with her gender,did however prove that voting alone cannot accomplish significant positive change.  in my humble opinion does not amount to much of a legacy, despite the bravery and sense of common purpose that the Suffragettes showed.

Now in 2013, democracies dominant paries still represent the few, alligned with corporations, private financiers, that exploit the resources of our nation, not for us, but for the interests of the few which they truly represent and uphold. Are we really free? Is not democracy a sham. In the last election in Britain the majority of the people voted against the Conservative Party, but now in coalition with the Liberal Democrats, it is their policies that are being currently cruelly implemented across the country. Struggles outside parliament are routinely ruthlessly supressed or critisised or simply ignored by the mainstream media.
Where is the democracy that saw the arrests of many people, taking part in actions and demonstrations leading up to the G8 summit.

Where is the democracy that sees communities being torn apart, and stigmatised. The marginalised, the poor and disadvantaged singled out to pay for the crimes of the bankers and the capitalist system, aidied and abetted by nearly all the parties  operating within the Parliamentary structure.
The legacy of the Suffragettes lives on though in people who daily practice deeds not words, who participate in direct action, constantly calling out for more radical change.
On the anniversary of Emmeline's death their are still many being foce fed, from Guantanamo, Israeli Prisons, across the world, many people still fighting , still hungry for freedom. Here in Britain at the moment their is a 60 year old man called George Rolph, who has now been on hunger strike against Atos ( the organisation that carries out work capability tests on behalf of the Government) prepared  to sacrifice his life to draw attention to the fact that his disability benefits had been denied. A survivor of domestic violence and abuse, who suffers from post traumatic stress disorder. On all accounts an individual with severe mental health issues. Bringing attention how the most vulnerable people in the U.K are being treated by their democratic government. Many others have died because they are ill and cannot cope under the strain of this Government Policies....

So on anniverary of this blog, I thank those who have supported this blog, left a comment or too, shown some encouragement, you know who you are.
Stay free,practice solidarity.
All the best

Tuesday, 11 June 2013

Henry David Thoreau (12/7/1817 -6/5/62) - A natural aristocracy of thought

 Henry David Thoreau (American author, poet,  philosopher,abolitionist,  naturalist and transcendentalist)

Books are the treasured wealth of the world and the fit inheritance of generations and nations. Books, the oldest and the best, stand naturally and rightfully on the shelves of every cottage. They have no cause of their own to plead, but while they enlighten and sustain the reader his common sense will not refuse them. Their authors are a natural and irresistible aristocracy in every society, and more than kings or emperors, exert an influence on mankind.'

From, Walden ( 1854 ) incidentally one of my favourite books

Sunday, 9 June 2013

Jazz Poem

In the long nights of  Autumn
I let the records revolve round and round,
as ashtray heart gets filled with golden memories.
Count Basie, Duke Ellington, Thelonius Monk,
Miles Davis, SunRa, Roland Kirk, 
into  deep spaces where I'm pleased to chill.

Follow giant steps, a love supreme
on the corner, the shape of things to come,
elements of fusion, on the fringes of tone time
rythyms of a higher power, free expression,
the poetry of improvisation, currents moving
running wildly across  seamless skies.

Charles Mingus, Ornette Coleman
strong and bold, rough and smooth,
these are the beats of my heart
Chet Baker, Johnny Ray sing out,
voices of the past touching now
eclectic hums still running free.

Take a stroll in the moonlight
take a voyage round the sun,
cast aside rules, space is deep
within you yet far away,
follows no particular season
inside deep a temple of sound.

Ah, jazz, it's horizon smiles with seduction
gets under fingernails, gets into souls,
water's senses with unlimited oceans
follow the notes outside, find devotion,
flowing with this magical understanding.

Keep on moving, dance with intent
refresh your breath, shake your hips,
raise your hands, make room for celebration
listen to the sounds of rhythm's eternal escape,
wordless music, releasing  creativity
pulling us into the chambers of dream.

Thursday, 6 June 2013

Naksa anniversary marked in Gaza

The fifth of June marks Naksa day or the setback during the 1967 six day war. At that time Israel launched a hostile war against Syria, Egypt and Jordan. After defeating Arab forces, Israel  completed the occupation of the rest of the Palestinian territories and occupied vast areas of Syria and Egypt.
46 years later a war veteran said Palestinnians were betrayed by Arab forces. Palestinian resistance groups forced Israeli forces to withdraw form Gaza in 2005. Israel now says that it no longer occupies Gaza but facts on the ground prove otherwise. This place under international law is occupied. You only have to live  their to see the Israeli warplanes that dominate the sky and still fly over.

 Furthermore, in the aftermath, Israel expopriated around 80% of Palestinian property and displaced more than 400,000 Palestinians. Around half of those displaced Palestinians in 1967, were already refugees from 1948 Nabka. By it's swift end, Israel had occupied the West Banl ( including Jerusalem) the Gaza strip and the Golan heights, with the exception of the Sinai Peninsular, Israel continues its illegal occupation of those lands to this day.Nany have said that the Six Day War was not thrust upon Israel, but engineered by them.
Since this date,  well immediately after this so called  defensive war, Israels settlement policy increased.
According to Noam Chomsky

 ' Settlements in the Occupied Territories began immediately after the war, sometimes without government authorisation, though this regularly came later... By December 1969, the Meir government had established as one of its 'esssential goals' the 'accelleration of military settlements and permanent agricultural and urban settlements in the territoryof the homeland'. ( ref: Noam Chomsky, The fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel and the Palestinians, South End Press, 1999)

I leave you with the words of eminent journalist Robert Fisk - ' The injustice done to the Palestinians, the dispossession, the massacres, not only the loss of that part of Palestine which became Israel- and  is internationally recognised as such- but also the occupation of the reminder of the mandate territory and the bloody suppression of any end all manifestations  of Palestine resistance:all this had to take secind place to Israel's security and the civilised values and democracy for which Israel was widely promised' Her army, which often behaved  with cruelty and indiscipline, was  to be regarded as an exemplar of 'purity of arms' and those of us who witnessd Israel's killing of civilians were to be abused as liars, anti-semites or friends of 'terrorism.'

from ' The Grreat War for Civiliation:The Conquest of the Middle East;
Robert Fisk, 2005

Remnant of village destoyed after 1967.

I am a friend of neither, but I oppose injustice.

Tuesday, 4 June 2013



Sign the petition and find more about the cull.
Write to your M.P takes 20 seconds

The Track

BADGER SWAGGER has been produced & created by the Artful Badger with a little help from their friends...

WHY? -

We created this track & music video together to raise awareness on the needless,unscientific, cruel & unwarranted slaughter of one of the British Isles' most beloved and unique creatures. Backed by politics & fear, not science nor public opinion, this exopensive & ineffective badger cull could well cause more problems than it cures ... even our friend David Attenborough says so!!

Listen in the track for what he says....



We love the badgers and they matter to our nanners
Cameron where's your manners
why them cameras try scan us
Some are sitting in a palace champagne and scallops
Some are in the store house begging for a package
We can't even manage
and killing all the badgers aint gonna fix the damage
It is sinning and drastic
like killing for plastic
Most are living brassic
people back this
We can't have this evil madness
Will tell your grandkids the story of the badgers
In 40 years time when they've all vanished
That you was to busy getting dizzy with a gadget
Sign the petition get busy and back it
Listen tio the mission see the vision and tactic
This will make the difference cos I went and Rob Cass'd it
Abbey road studios artful badger smacked it
Yeah I wrote a banger cos with grammar I'm the ccaptain


Some things are black and white
Come on we got to win this fight
Some things are wrong not right
So people gotta hold on tight
Some things are like dynamite
Got to make them see the light
Some things are black and white
Come on fight the fight

Verse 2

Listen to my verse and words in the tune
It's all going down on the first of June
People gather round give your point of view
In the manor underground be the voice for you crew
Yeah it matters now make a choice for the truth
You can't cull the bagers if you aint got the proof
NFU NFU deaths bad karma for your revenue
NFU NFU it's not a clever move
I think you better think it through
Be careful what you do
Cos the inner city's gritty
And we don't like the news
TB just rteduced by 16%
Even if every single badger is dead
So whats the effect we're not impressed
All the scientists said it doesn't make sense
Yet the killing goes ahead
How do you sleep in your bed
Get off my badger or I will get vex!


Some things are black and white
Come on we got to win the fight
Some things are wrong not right
So people got to holld on tight!
Some things are like dynamite
Gotta make them see the light
Some things are black and white
Come on fight the fight

Spoken word: (Sir David Attenborough)
So the government instituted a major inquiry to establish
scientifically the facts. That involved culling 11,000 badgers and
the results by the government advisor to that independent scientific
group were that culling was not a vible policy option.


Some things are black and white
Come on we got to win this fight
Some things are wrong not fight
So people got to hold on tight!


Some thing are like dynamite
Got to make them see the light
Some things are black and white
Come on fight the fight


earlier post
West Wales badger cull

Sunday, 2 June 2013

R.S Thomas ( 29/3/13 -25/9/00) - On the Threshold of Liberty

                                Rene Magritte

Been away a week, amongst  Hay-on -Wye's corporate tents, time for  annual reflections, time for trusty old notebooks to disappear.
Reflections  may come, and go, but every year I read some R.S. Thomas, so this year with it being the centenary of his birth it adds a little poignancy. So last week as I immersed myself in Welsh landscapes. I also searched out Mr Thomas's deeper imaginings, where his passion for art is overlooked, far away from Iago Prytherch, his  resonance still littered with profound suffusion, little proclamations of committment, that continually assist.
So today I honour yesterdays's serial obsessive, who unlike google at least followed some kind of ethical code, whose flowers  still bloom in hope's potent wind. On the bridge of possibility.

What it means is:
            you must accede
to the invention. Flesh,
trees, dwellings, the grain
                        in the wood
are vulnerable and not
             to be shot at;
only the sky is
the inventor would claim
             all he wants is
  for it to go off.
                        So move
the paintings to one side
             in  the humanist's
gallery; open a window.
Let the gun point its muzzle,
at the idea that there are limits.       

Reprinted from
Ingrowing Thoughts- R.S .Thomas
Poetry Wales Press, 1985.